The barbell back squat is considered the "king" (or queen!) of exercises due to its full-body nature.
Walking lunges work the quads, glutes, and hamstrings well.
Pull-ups work the lats, biceps, triceps, forearms, shoulders, and back.
The deadlift is another basic complex exercise that works the hamstrings and glutes. Lower back, quads, traps, and core are included.
The pectoral and triceps-focused bench press is a great upper-body exercise. It involves the deltoids, upper back, and forearm muscles.
Bent-over rows are great lat and rhomboidal pulling exercises. They engage biceps, traps, and lower back muscles.
A terrific shoulder workout for deltoids is the overhead press. It works core, triceps, and upper pectorals.